lundi 23 mars 2009

La "machine" d'Hérodote selon Andrzej Bochnacki

Andrzej Bochnacki est un ingénieur polonais spécialiste de construction navale. Il s'intéresse à l'étude des moyens de transport les plus divers, notamment ceux qui peuvent faciliter la vie quotidienne des handicapés.
Dans son ouvrage Different Story About Pyramids (traduit du polonais), il a imaginé la "machine" d'Hérodote pour hisser les blocs de pierre sur le flanc de la pyramide de Khéops. Selon lui, la force nécessaire pour mouvoir un bloc de 2,5 tonnes sur un plan incliné de 30° était de 1.600 kg. À l'aide d'un levier (rapport de 1 à 10), cinq ou six manœuvres pouvaient ainsi, à tour de rôle, de 4-5 cm en 4-5 cm, hisser un bloc d'une "marche" à l'autre de la pyramide.
Pour le transport des blocs de pierre sur une rampe, Andrzej Bochnacki propose cette autre théorie, comme alternative à celle des traîneaux : “We can push away the sixth stone from five stones connected together. Five or more stones always stay still, because the friction of a few stones is always bigger than the friction of one stone. So joining the stone in groups, we can move stone one by one. Simple wooden levers and wedges or only wedges will be completely suitable tools for blocks transport along the ramp. And we do not have to worry about friction, because stone platform coated thinly with sand, would be not only the transport road but also the tool smoothing the surface of stone block. It should be noticed that this method of transport did not need any special tools ; it is the ability, which disappears in time, when this way of transport was not needed any more. Stones placed densely in two or three rows will slowly move up, securing proper transport efficiency. Very important advantage of such transport is that people stay in one place. They do not have to transport themselves along the platform and it is big energy saving”.(....) Stones coming closer and away, like rings of a huge worn, could look from a distance like legendary walking stones.” (extrait du site Internet d'Andrzej Bochnacki)


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